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Atherosclerotic
Cardiovascular Disease
(ASCVD)

What is Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease (ASCVD)?

Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease, or ASCVD, is a chronic condition that primarily affects the heart and blood vessels. It is characterized by the buildup of plaque inside the arteries, a process known as atherosclerosis. This plaque consists of fats, cholesterol, and other substances that gradually narrow and stiffen the arteries. Reduced blood flow due to narrowing or blockage can lead to inadequate blood supply to the heart and other tissues.

ASCVD encompasses coronary heart disease (heart attack and angina), cerebrovascular disease (stroke), and peripheral arterial disease (narrowing or blockage of arteries in the limbs). It is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide.

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Approximately 300 million people globally are estimated to have ASCVD or carry pathogenic genes associated with the disease.

What Are the Symptoms Associated with Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease (ASCVD)?

The symptoms of ASCVD can vary depending on the individual. Common symptoms include chest pain (angina), shortness of breath, palpitations, fatigue, dizziness, leg pain or numbness, among others. In some cases, ASCVD may be asymptomatic, known as silent ASCVD. Regular check-ups and related tests are crucial for early detection and treatment of ASCVD due to its silent nature.

How is Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease (ASCVD) Diagnosed?

Diagnosing ASCVD typically involves a series of medical evaluations and tests. Physicians may evaluate a patient's risk factors through medical history, physical examination, and blood pressure measurement. Additionally, blood tests, electrocardiogram (ECG), echocardiogram, coronary angiography, and other diagnostic tests may be conducted to confirm the presence of ASCVD, assess the severity, and determine the extent of the disease.

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What Are the Treatment Options for Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease (ASCVD)?

The treatment goals for ASCVD are symptom relief, disease management, and reducing the risk of cardiovascular events such as heart attacks or strokes. Common treatment options include lifestyle changes (e.g., diet modifications, exercise, smoking cessation) and medications (e.g., cholesterol-lowering agents, antiplatelet drugs). In some cases, surgical interventions (e.g., bypass surgery or interventional procedures) may be necessary.It is worth noting that the use of in vivo gene editing therapies specifically targeting ASCVD is still under research and development and may be a potential treatment option in the future.

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